Health & Wellbeing:
Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)The CES-D is a freely available and widely used 20 item self-report scale which measures the current level of depressive symptomatology in the general population, with an emphasis on depressed mood during the past week (Radloff 1977). The CES-D incorporates the main symtpoms of depression and was derived from five validated depression scales including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). It is freely available in the public domain, has been validated in community and primary care populations, in cardiac patients (Penninx et al. 2001) and older populations (Zich et al. 1990) and has good test-retest reliability (Ensel 1986).
Scores range from 0 to 60, with higher scores indicating more symptoms of depression. CESD scores of 16 to 26 are considered indicative of mild depression and scores of 27 or more indicative of major depression (Zich et al. 1990, Ensel 1986). Zich, Attkisson & Greenfield (1990) found the stringent cut-off score of 27 more useful for screening medical patients for depression than the standard cut-off score of 16. These classifications have been used in a number of studies by Ensel 1986; Zich, Attkisson et al. 1990; Logsdon, McBride et al. 1994; Geisser, Roth et al. 1997.
http://www.in.gov/isdh/programs/diabetes/guidlines/depression.htm (permission to use CES-D)
"The gold standard method for diagnosis of depression is the structured clinical interview based on DSM criteria. Two of he most commonly used screening tests are the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory.
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)The HADS (Zigmund and Snaith 1983) is a widely-used 14-item self-report scale designed to briefly measure current anxiety and depressive symptomatology in non-psychiatric hospital patients. It excludes somatic symptoms, therefore avoiding potential confounding by somatic symptoms (Snaith and Zigmond 1994). There are independent subscales for anxiety and depression. Scores on each scale can be interpreted in ranges: normal (0-7), mild (8-10), moderate (11-14) and severe (15-21). A score of 8 or above was considered to indicate depression for the IDACC project, consistent with other cardiac patient samples (Roberts, Bonnici et al. 2001; Strik, Honig et al. 2001; Strik, Honig et al. 2001). The HADS is considered to be valid measure of anxiety and depression in patients with myocardial infarction (Johnston, Pollard et al. 2000) and its high test-retest reliability make it suitable for monitoring these symptoms.
Snaith R (2003) regards a scores of 11 or higher to indicate probable 'caseness' of mood disorder on the anxiety or depression subscales, and a score of 8-10 being just suggestive of a disorder.
Snaith RP. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2003;1:29 http://www.hqlo.com/content/1/1/29
Beck Depression Inventory, version 2 (BDI)The BDI (and subsequently, the BDI-II) is the most widely used instrument for measuring the severity of depression in psychiatric patients. It is recognised as a `gold standard' among self-report measures of depression. The BDI, originally developed in 1967, was updated in 1996 (BDI-II(Beck, Steer et al. 1996)) to correspond to the revised diagnostic criteria for depressive disorders as listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DSM-IV) (ref). It is a 21-item scale, with possible scores ranging from 0 to 63 (higher values correspond to higher depressive symptomatology). Beck et al. (1996) suggest that scores be interpreted in ranges: not depressed (0-13); mild depression (14-19); moderate depression (20-28); and severe depression (29-63).
The BDI was used in the IDACC project as an additional index of depression severity in patients identified as `depressed, rather than as a screening instrument for the total sample. A group of `non-depressed' participants was also given the BDI-II for comparison purposes. The cost of routinely using the BDI-II as a screening instrument was deemed prohibitive due to copyright.
Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL)The AQoL (Hawthorne, Richardson et al. 1999; Hawthorne, Richardson et al. 2000) was developed in Australia as a measure of five domains of health-related quality of life: illness, independent living, physical ability, psychological state and social interaction. It is a quick and easy-to-complete self-report scale directed at the respondent's evaluations of their health during the previous week Items are scored from 1-4 with higher scores indicative of worse health related quality of life. The AQoL has sophisticated theoretical and statistical foundation.
Short Form-36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36)The Short Form-36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) was developed for use as a survey of health status (Ware and Sherbourne 1992). Its 36 items measure eight domains of health: physical functioning; role limitations due to physical problems; social functioning; bodily pain; general mental health; role limitations due to emotional problems; and vitality. These scales are collapsed into 2 summary scales, the physical component scale (PCS) and mental health component scale (MCS). All scores are transformed 0-100, and the 2 summary scales each have a mean of 50 and standard deviation of +/-10. Lower scores equate to poorer health status, and 100 represents the best health state.
One additional question measures perception of health changes during the last year. The SF-36 is a generic multi-dimensional health status measure that has been widely used for many health conditions, enabling results of studies to be compared with other published data using the SF-36.
Life Orientation Test (LOT-R)The Life Orientation Test (LOT) is a 10-item measure of generalised dispositional optimism (versus pessimism) that was developed by Scheier and Carver in 1985 and revised in 1994 (LOT-R) to focus on
Scores range from 0 to 24 with high scores indicating greater optimism. Evidence suggests that optimism is associated with lesser amounts of distress during times of difficulty, and hence is beneficial for physical
and psychological well-being. This may be mediated by the manner of coping with stress. The overall score may be further analysed in terms of positively and negatively worded items representing optimism and pessimism. (Desharnais, Godin et al. 1990 and Scheier et al 1999 report studies of optimism on outcomes in cardiac patients.)
Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (PSSS)The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (PSSS) is a validated 12-item instrument designed to assess perceptions about support from family, friends and a significant other. The scale was
developed by Zimet et al. in 1988. The items are divided into factor groups relating to the source of support, with scores ranging from 1 to 7. High scores indicate high levels of perceived support. Social support is believed to contribute a moderating influence between stressful life events and depression.
Demographics, Medical History
- country of birth
- language spoken at home
- employment status
- usual occupation
- main source of household income
- highest educational qualification
- marital status
- dwelling type
- household size (number of people in household)
- Whether they have a helper/carer or act as a helper/carer for another person
- Previous diagnosis of heart attack, angina, heart failure, arrhythmia, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, respiratory failure, mini-stroke (TIA) or stroke
- Previous medical procedures - bypass surgery, angioplasty, pace-maker insertion, electrocardiogram, removal or part or whole of lung, lung transplant, or use of oxygen at home
- Any other heart procedures
- Any other respiratory procedures
- Family history of heart disease
- Family history of respiratory disease
- Cigarette smoking habits (current and lifetime)
- Height and weight
- Number of weeks in the last 12 months when unable to carry out their normal duties because of the heart condition
- Diagnosis in the last 12 months of anxiety, depression, stress-related problem or another mental health problem, and whether presently still have that condition
- Whether currently receiving treatment for anxiety, depression, stress-related problems or any other mental health problem
- Whether they have been troubled by feeling anxious, sad, angry, depressed, worried or "down in the dumps" for at least 2 weeks in the past 12 months
- Who they have talked to about their feelings, mood or emotional health
- Level of satisfaction with the way their emotional concerns were listened to
- What makes it difficult to talk to their doctor about emotional concerns
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)The Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used. The CIDI (Andrews and Peters 1998), is a fully structured interview (also available in self-administered paper-and-pencil form) that maps symptoms onto DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. The IDACC study utilised a subset of questions on traumatic events from the PTSD module of the CIDI.
PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C)The PCL-C (Weathers 1993) is a brief, freely available 17-item screening instrument for assessing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the general population.
References:Abramson, J., A. Berger, et al. (2001). "Depression and risk of heart failure among older persons with isolated systolic hypertension." Arch Intern Med 161(14): 1725-30.
Andrews, G. and L. Peters (1998). "The psychometric properties of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview." Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 33(2): 80-8.
Burker, E. J., J. A. Blumenthal, et al. (1995). "Depression in male and female patients undergoing cardiac surgery." Br J Clin Psychol 34 ( Pt 1): 119-28.
Desharnais, R., G. Godin, et al. (1990). "Optimism and health-relevant cognitions after a myocardial infarction." Psychol Rep 67(3 Pt 2): 1131-5.
Ensel, W. (1986). Measuring depression: The CES-D Scale. Social Support, Life Events and Depression. N. Lin, A. Dean and W. M. Ensel. New york, Academic Press.
Geisser, M. E., R. S. Roth, et al. (1997). "Assessing depression among persons with chronic pain using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory: a comparative analysis." Clin J Pain 13(2): 163-70.
Hawthorne, G., J. Richardson, et al. (2000). Using the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) Instrument Version 1.0. Melbourne, Monash University.
Hawthorne, G., J. Richardson, et al. (1999). "The Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) instrument: a psychometric measure of health-related quality of life." Qual Life Res 8(3): 209-24.
Johnston, M., B. Pollard, et al. (2000). "Construct validation of the hospital anxiety and depression scale with clinical populations." J Psychosom Res 48(6): 579-84.
Logsdon, M. C., A. B. McBride, et al. (1994). "Social support and postpartum depression." Research in Nursing and Health 17(6): 449-457.
Pirraglia, P. A., J. C. Peterson, et al. (1999). "Depressive symptomatology in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients." Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 14(8): 668-80.
Radloff, L. (1977). "The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population." Applied Psychological Measurement 1(3): 385-401.
Roberts, S. B., D. M. Bonnici, et al. (2001). "Psychometric evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) among female cardiac patients." British Journal of Health Psychology 6: 373-383.
Scheier M, Matthews K et al. (1999) Optimism and rehospitalisation after coronary artery bypass surgery. Arch Intern Med; 159:829-35
Scheier, M., C. Carver, et al. (1994). "Distinguishing Optimism From Neuroticism (and Trait Anxiety, Self-Mastery, and Self-Esteem): A Reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67(6): 1063-1078.
Snaith, R. P. and A. S. Zigmond (1994). The Hospital Anxety and Depression Scale with The-Irritability Depression-Anxiety Scale and The Leeds Situational Anxiety Scale. Windsor, Berkshire, UK, NFER-NELSON Publishing Company Ltd.
Strik, J. J., A. Honig, et al. (2001). "Sensitivity and specificity of observer and self-report questionnaires in major and minor depression following myocardial infarction." Psychosomatics 42(5): 423-8.
Strik, J. J., A. Honig, et al. (2001). "Clinical correlates of depression following myocardial infarction." Int J Psychiatry Med 31(3): 255-64.
Ware, J. E., Jr. and C. D. Sherbourne (1992). "The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection." Med Care 30(6): 473-83.
Weathers, F. L., BT; Herman, DS; Huska, JA; Keane, TM (1993). The PTSD Checklist (PCL): Reliability, validity, and diagnostic utility. Trauma, Coping and Adaptation, San Antonio, Texas, International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Zich, J. M., C. C. Attkisson, et al. (1990). "Screening for depression in primary care clinics: the CES-D and the BDI." Int J Psychiatry Med 20(3): 259-77.
Zigmund, A. S. and R. P. Snaith (1983). "The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale." Acta Psychiatr Scand 67: 361-70.
Zimet G, Dahlem N et al (1988) The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. J Personality Assessment;52:30-41.
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